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We strive to develop protein therapeutics and vaccines to address unmet medical needs in infectious diseases, with a focus on Bordetella pertussis and cytomegalovirus as target pathogens. These proteins aim to directly interfere in disease progression or augment essential immune system activities. This work involves design of proteins with therapeutic potential, production in recombinant expression systems, biophysical and biochemical analyses to elucidate the molecular basis of activity and, ultimately, in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate a protein's therapeutic potential in the context of a complex organism.
Our efforts fall into the three general categories described below.  In addition, we develop tools to support our engineering efforts, such as our recently described mammalian display system that supports engineering of proteins requiring mammalian membrane, post-translational modifications or other features specific to  mammalian cells to produce active protein. 


  • Outsmarting pathogens with antibodies: Discovery and design of antibodies that resist pathogen efforts to evade capture or that redirect cellular immune responses towards infected cells.
    • DiVenere AM*, Amengor DA*, Silva RP, Goldsmith JA, McLellan JS and Maynard JA. Blockade of the adenylate cyclase toxin synergizes with opsonizing antibodies to protect mice against B. pertussis. mBio, 13(4): e0152722 (2022).
    • Nguyen AW, DiVenere AM, Papin JA, Connelly S, Kaleko M and Maynard JA, Neutralization of pertussis toxin by a single antibody prevents clinical pertussis in neonatal baboons. Science Advances 6, eaay9258 (2020).​ [link]
    • Human cytomegalovirus-specific T cell receptor engineered for high affinity and soluble expression using mammalian cell display. J Biol Chem, 294: 5790 (2019) - [link].
  • Outsmarting pathogens with vaccines: Using what we learn from antibodies that prevent disease, especially antibodies that protect despite a pathogen's efforts to evade the immune system, we aim to design vaccine antigens that induce potently protective antibody responses. 
    • Silva R, DiVenere AM, Amengor A, Maynard JA. Antibodies binding diverse pertactin epitopes protect mice from B. pertussis. JBC, 298(3): 101715 (2022).
    • Goldsmith J, DiVenere AM, Maynard JA, McLellan JS. Structural basis for antibody binding to adenylate cyclase toxin reveals RTX-linkers as key neutralization-sensitive epitopes. Plos Pathogens 17(9): e1009920 (2021). [link]
  • Outsmarting cancer: Discovery and design of antibodies endowed with novel capabilities, such as those with conditional activity at the site of disease. 
    • Liu, Y, Nguyen AW* and Maynard JA*. Engineering antibodies for conditional activity in the solid tumor microenvironment.  Curr Opin Biotechnol, invited review, (2022).
    • Liu Y, Lee AG, Nguyen AW*and Maynard JA*. An antibody Fc engineered for conditional ADCC at the low tumor microenvironment pH. JBC, 298(4):101798 (2022).
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